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Biology Articles For High School Students

Christian Said:

Yesterday, I asked a question in response to a question asked by an Atheist talking about human "gill slits"..

We Answered:

This was taken from You are correct we do not ever have gill slits but the pharyngeal pouches that the term describe are still more proof of evolution.

Human embryos do not have gill slits; they have pharyngeal pouches. In fish, these develop into gills, but in reptiles, mammals, and birds, they develop into other structures and are never even rudimentary gills. Calling them gill slits is reading Darwinian theory into the evidence. There is no way gill slits can serve as evidence for evolution.


Wells, Jonathan, 2000. Icons of Evolution, Washington DC: Regnery Publishing Inc., pp. 105-107.


The pharyngeal pouches that appear in embryos technically are not gill slits, but that is irrelevant. The reason they are evidence for evolution is that the same structure, whatever you call it, appears in all vertebrate embryos. Agassiz (not a Darwinist himself) said, "The higher Vertebrates, including man himself, breathe through gill-like organs in the early part of their life. These gills disappear and give place to lungs only in a later phase of their existence" (Agassiz 1874).

Darwinian evolution predicts, among other things, similar (not identical) structures in related organisms. That pharyngeal pouches in humans are similar to pharyngeal pouches (or whatever you call them) in fish is one piece of evidence that humans and fish share a common ancestor.
Agassiz, Louis, 1874. Evolution and Permanence of Type, reprinted in Hull, David L., 1973, Darwin and His Critics, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, p. 440.
Further Reading:
Gilbert, Scott F., 1988. Developmental Biology, 2nd ed. Sunderland MA: Sinauer Associates

Edit-You failed to cite your source. answersingenesis is not at all a decent or remotely valid site for science and definately not biology.

Jesse Said:

Why be against the DREAM act??? WHy not allow them to EARN legal status?

We Answered:

If our highschool drop-out rates are at an all time high, why not allow them to take their place?


High school drop-out rate in major US cities at nearly 50 percent…

Katherine Said:

Do you think i'll get an appeal from UCLA?

We Answered:

Honestly, it needs quite a bit of work to impress Admissions. Can your English teacher or college counselor help you clean it up? It's rather rambling, and doesn't get some of the points across as you intend. You need someone to help you put the right spin on it.

Good luck!

Ryan Said:

Chances for Dartmouth?

We Answered:

Positives: hispanic, interviewee, ED, under-represented region.

Published poet = worth nothing.

EC's = worth nothing

AP's = a real plus.

SAT's on low side for Dartmouth

I'd say your chances are 75 / 100.

Geraldine Said:

can someone help me with my englsih homework? I summarized an article and I'm not sure that all is correct.

We Answered:

The article tackles the problem of sleep deprivation in teenagers. Although teens need at least nine hours of sleep a night, these ones tend to sleep less than adults. (which ones? Who are you talking about?)

The two pieces of research from which I quote (sources) confirm the fact that students don’t sleep enough: one in five got less than six hours a night and 82 percent woke up tired and unrefreshed in the morning.

There are a number of reasons for this: the early hour at which school starts, (what country is this? How early is early?), complex multi-tasking carried out throughout the day, the need to stay after school for special activities (such as?), all make students tired. This may be compounded by the tendency of some students to attend all-night parties until the early hours of the morning. Such partying can disrupt the body's internal clock at a time when puberty is already disrupting the adolescent's circadian rhythms.

Perpetual lack of sleep can have bad consequences for health: it can affect the students' studies and their social lives ( their social lives sound fine to me) and can cause them to feel irritable or anxious, sometimes bringing on headaches and stomach problems.

Moreover, it can be deadly for teenagers because car crashes are the leading cause of death among adolescents.

The writer notes that later school start times have been introduced in some middle and high schools since the 1990s. The results have been encouraging. Indeed, as a result, grades improved and there were fewer driving accidents. However, most schools still start early.

In conclusion, parents are advised to help adolescents get the right amount of sleep because, after all, it’s their role to take care of their children!

Kenneth Said:

Potato tomato transplants: The marriage interesting?

We Answered:

If you look broader I think you'll find greater potential in nurse crops. Crops grown under shelter trees, both cropping in season. You might want to look at companion plants as well, one protecting the other from diseases.

Hazel Said:

Can you guys tell me what I need to add or take out of my essay so far. help me edit this thank you?

We Answered:

Sometimes it’s difficult to think with the heart and not the human brain (the way you phrased/ordered this it seems like the heart isn't human but the brain is, perhaps remove the word "human"). In the article, “A brain too young for good judgment” Daniel R. Weinberg explains violent entertainment among teenagers are caused by the biology of the human brain (this sentence makes very little sense. Did you mean 'the attraction towards violent entertainment'? also, it should be 'is caused' because the subject "violent entertainment" is singular). However, violent behavior among teenagers is learned by their family members, neighborhood, and watching peers (it should be 'learned from' and "watching peers" is an awkward and confusing phrasing).

First, violent behavior among teenagers is learned (I would remove "first" and expand this sentence with a little more content). Growing up, my family often told me to never be afraid to defend yourself (my family told me that I should b=never be afraid to defend myself). Family members taught me when someone is doing wrong to you fight for what is right (when someone has wronged you, you should fight for what you believe is right). For instance, when I was in high school I was a student who was picked on because I was quiet (I was picked on because of my quiet nature/behaviour, and you might want to change "picked on" for bullied or another, more elegant, phrasing). I knew how to stand up for myself and fight. But, Weinberger said, “to control impulses that arise from these feelings is a function of prefrontal cortex.” (what feelings? this is not clear) The brain will tell you what your reactions should be, but based on feelings of defense ("feelings of defense"might be exchanged for 'the need for self-preservation' or something of the like) and what was instilled into you from family members, being violent is the first instinct.

Secondly, violent behavior among teenagers is learned (if you are going to use "secondly", you must use 'firstly' in the preceding paragraph. Alternatively, you could say 'first' and 'second', but you must be consistent.) The neighborhood teaches teenagers to be violent (the environment a particular neighbourhood creates can encourage violent behaviour) . The presence of gangs and drug dealing brings violence to a neighborhood. As teenagers, both of my brothers were part of a gang and sold drugs. Many nights, my parents had rushed to hospitals or police stations from them being into fights, disturbing the neighborhood with gang violent outrages, and dealing out illegal drugs ('because my brothers had been involved in gang fights, which disturbed the entire neighbourhood.) . On the contrary (Conversely), Weinberger emphasizes, “it [the brain] must also be able to exercise control that stops maladaptive behavior.” Teenagers have knowledge of knowing that maladaptive behavior is wrong, but still choice to show violent behavior because that’s what they see, hear, and experience in their neighborhood, so they become apart of their environment ("Have knowledge of knowing" is incredibly redundant, 'Teenagers are aware that maladaptive behaviour is wrong, but the still choose to demonstrate violent behaviour because that is what they see, hear and experience in their neighbourhood, leaving them to become a part of their environment. (you should explain what maladaptive behaviour is).

Your thesis isn't clear, and there is an obvious disconnect between the citations you use and the actual essay. It seems as if the citations are forced in where they don't belong.
Also, you use a lot of first person and reflect upon your own life. While you've executed that well, is this what your assignment has asked for? Many essay assignments frown upon the use of first person, preferring , rather, the third person.

Discuss It!

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